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Walls of part of the College of Jesus are encased within number 23 and Nos 2, 2A, 4 (later for a time Old College Inn, a beerhouse), 6 and 8 Effingham Street.
Its fragments of walls are the earliest surviving brick structure in South Yorkshire and are remains of the key institution to Rotherham's growth into a town of regional significance.
Rotherham is today the largest town in a contiguous area with Sheffield, informally known as the Sheffield Urban Area and is as such an economic centre for many of Sheffield's suburbs — Sheffield City Centre is 5.6 miles (9.0 km) from Rotherham town centre.
Rotherham was well known as a coal mining town as well as a major contributor to Sheffield's steel industry.
By the late Saxon period, Rotherham was at the centre of a large parish on the Don's banks.
Following the Norman Conquest an absentee lord held the most inhabited manor, Nigel Fossard (however today's city proper takes in eight outyling Domesday estates).
Iron, and later steel, became the principal industry in Rotherham, surviving into the 20th century.
The company was purchased by Tube Investments Ltd in 1956 and closed in 1974.
Steel, Peech and Tozer's massive Templeborough steelworks (now the Magna Science Adventure Centre) was, at its peak, over a mile (1.6 km) long, employing 10,000 workers, and housing six electric arc furnaces producing 1.8 million tonnes of steel a year. The first railway stations, Holmes and Rotherham Westgate both on the Sheffield and Rotherham Railway opened on 31 October 1838.
The Domesday 'Book' or Survey records this lord of the manor with a Norman name took the place of the Saxon lord Hakon holding 20 years before in 1066 and was tenant of an overlord of hundreds of such manors, Robert de Mortain, the Conqueror's half-brother.
The central assets at the time were medium in rank among manors: eight adult male householders were counted as villagers, three were smallholders and one the priest, three ploughlands were tilled by one lord's plough team and two and a half men's plough teams were active.
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His successors, the De Vesci family, rarely visited the town and did not build a castle but maintained a Friday market and a fair.